DNA Imputation

Our service offers the imputation of any RAW DNA data file (such as those from 23andme, Ancestry, FTDNA, MyHeritage, and LivingDNA) from 700,000 SNPs to 30 million SNPs using BEAGLE 5.2, BCFTOOLS, and the 1000Genomes human reference panel.

Upon completion of the imputation process, you will receive the following:

  • A free Starter Pack report based on the imputed file.
  • A large file containing 30 million SNPs in 23andme RAW format (approx. 250 MB in a compressed ZIP file). This file can be converted to other RAW DNA file formats using PLINK or DNA Kit Studio.
  • A small file containing 2.5 million SNPs in 23andme RAW format (approx. 15 MB in a compressed ZIP file), which is ready to be uploaded to websites such as Gedmatch and YourDnaPortal.

Please note that the imputation process only applies to chromosomes 1-22 and does not cover MTDNA or YDNA.

What are the differences between ancestry and traits reports for non-imputed and imputed files?

The imputation process can lead to an improvement in the accuracy of your ancestry and traits reports, including a more refined “Ethnicity Estimate” with better country detection and regional breakdown, as well as more detailed ancient connections in the “Shared Ancient Origins” report. It may also uncover additional traits that were previously inconclusive with your original RAW file. Additionally, the Neanderthal traits report will include an analysis of all Neanderthal traits.

Where can the RAW file that has been imputed be uploaded?

The imputed RAW file can be uploaded to various websites, including Gedmatch, Promethease, and GenVue, and can also be used in Admixture Studio.

DISCLAIMER: Please be aware that the imputation process can lead to an error rate of genotypes ranging from 1% to 5%, due to the statistical nature of the process. It is not advisable to utilize the imputed file for health predictions without considering this factor, as there is a chance of encountering false positives or false negatives if uploaded to a website that provides health predictions.